Author Topic: "She Blinded Me With Science!"  (Read 47199 times)

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Offline RottingCorpse

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Re: "She Blinded Me With Science!"
« Reply #45 on: February 07, 2014, 07:45:49 AM »
Nothing here but a little TIME TRAVEL!

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/next/physics/retrocausality-could-send-information-back-to-the-future/

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Retrocausality Could Send Particles’ Information Back to the Future

Does time have a direction?

You’d think so. When you pour cream into coffee, it swirls around and paints your cup o’ joe a lighter brown—the cream doesn’t tend to funnel itself out of your coffee and back into your milk carton. That’s because the second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy (or disordered-ness) of a system always increases until it reaches thermal equilibrium, when all available energy has been dispersed. In other words, there’s a temperature disparity between the coffee and the cream, and their collision brings chaos to the cup. The process—the implied passing of time from start to finish—gives all those molecules a chance to sort out their differences, to distribute, and come to a more relaxed state of disarray. Entropy requires time to have one direction.

Although this “arrow of time” governs the universe on a whole, physicists suspect that the rules are different on the quantum mechanical level, particularly when it comes to a phenomenon known as entanglement. Entangled particles start off close together, and when separated, they’re able to communicate with each other and share information at a rate that’s seemingly instantaneous—faster than the speed of light. Whatever one particle does, the other follows suit in a consistent way. But according to the theory of relativity, nothing can travel that quickly.

So some physicists and philosophers, including Huw Price from the University of Cambridge, are now proposing a solution, something they call “retrocausality.” What if, they posit, entangled particles are traveling not just in space, but in time? Here’s George Musser, writing for Nautilus:

    Suppose it is not the case that the particles (or dice) communicate instantaneously with each other, and it is also not the case that their values were fixed in advance. There seem to be no options remaining. But here Price asks us to consider the impossible: that doing something to either of the entangled particles causes effects which travel backward in time to the point in the past when the two particles were close together and interacting strongly. At that point, information from the future is exchanged, each particle alters the behavior of its partner, and these effects then carry forward into the future again. There is no need for instantaneous communication, and no violation of relativity.

Basically, Price is saying that if we can’t have instantaneous information exchange over a physical distance, then maybe entangled particles whisper information in each others’ ears across the vastness of time. Then it, in turn, brings that information with it to the future. It’s like sending a letter back in time to a friend—you send it, but even before you’ve gotten to the post office, she already knows the secret message inside because, at one point, you were roommates.

In our non-quantum lives, we can’t see these things happening. We’re locked into our perception of time and causality. Time is still a forward arrow, and action comes before reaction.

At the particle level, though, some physicists believe this logic could be sound, and they’re beginning to use it to explain existing results. (Musser’s article has more.) But there’s still some work to do. Scientists need to come up with a more fleshed-out theory of retrocausality that can compete with the way we’ve traditionally thought about quantum mechanics.

For more mind-bending thoughts on space and time, check out Musser’s article and a recent post on NOVA’s physics blog, “The Nature of Reality,” about “trap doors” in space and time.

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Re: "She Blinded Me With Science!"
« Reply #46 on: February 07, 2014, 08:15:49 AM »
Still trying to prove the opening scenes of The Time Machine!

You post this and not the mouse-cure for diabetes?

Offline RottingCorpse

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Re: "She Blinded Me With Science!"
« Reply #47 on: February 07, 2014, 01:50:15 PM »
I didn't read the mouse cure for diabetes because YOU didn't post it.

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Re: "She Blinded Me With Science!"
« Reply #48 on: February 07, 2014, 02:28:44 PM »
Quote
THURSDAY, Feb. 6, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- In a potential breakthrough for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, researchers have successfully turned mouse skin cells into insulin-producing beta cells.

And when those cells were transplanted into a few dozen diabetic mice, their blood sugar levels returned almost to normal, the scientists found.

What's more, they noted, the technique used to transform these cells is safer than other methods that have been used to transform one type of cell into another.

If this treatment works in humans as it does in mice -- which remains a big hurdle -- it could mean the end of daily insulin injections for people with type 1 diabetes, the researchers suggested.

More at:

http://consumer.healthday.com/diabetes-information-10/type-i-diabetes-news-182/researchers-reprogram-mouse-skin-cells-to-make-insulin-684613.html

Offline monkey!

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Re: "She Blinded Me With Science!"
« Reply #49 on: February 07, 2014, 02:29:46 PM »
Quote
THURSDAY, Feb. 6, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- In a potential breakthrough for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, researchers have successfully turned mouse skin cells into insulin-producing beta cells.

And when those cells were transplanted into a few dozen diabetic mice, their blood sugar levels returned almost to normal, the scientists found.

What's more, they noted, the technique used to transform these cells is safer than other methods that have been used to transform one type of cell into another.

If this treatment works in humans as it does in mice -- which remains a big hurdle -- it could mean the end of daily insulin injections for people with type 1 diabetes, the researchers suggested.

More at:

http://consumer.healthday.com/diabetes-information-10/type-i-diabetes-news-182/researchers-reprogram-mouse-skin-cells-to-make-insulin-684613.html

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Re: "She Blinded Me With Science!"
« Reply #50 on: February 24, 2014, 05:21:57 PM »
And in the third balloon...a Youtube hole.


Offline monkey!

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Re: "She Blinded Me With Science!"
« Reply #51 on: February 24, 2014, 05:44:52 PM »
Oh. Fun.
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Offline RottingCorpse

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Re: "She Blinded Me With Science!"
« Reply #52 on: March 03, 2014, 08:03:54 PM »
I came *really* close to posting this in the Twin Peaks thread.

Quote
What Tree Rings Sound Like Played on a Record Player

http://www.livescience.com/33673-tree-rings-sound-record-player.html

Offline Reginald McGraw

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Re: "She Blinded Me With Science!"
« Reply #53 on: March 03, 2014, 11:28:40 PM »
That's pretty neat!

Offline monkey!

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Re: "She Blinded Me With Science!"
« Reply #54 on: March 04, 2014, 05:10:55 AM »
There will come a day for every man when he will relish the prospect of eating his own shit. That day has yet to come for me.

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Offline RottingCorpse

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Re: "She Blinded Me With Science!"
« Reply #56 on: March 23, 2014, 02:54:53 PM »
Whoa...

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How Infamous Hydroelectric Dam Changed Earth’s Rotation

http://www.fromquarkstoquasars.com/how-infamous-hydroelectric-dam-changed-earths-rotation/

Offline monkey!

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Re: "She Blinded Me With Science!"
« Reply #57 on: March 23, 2014, 06:58:01 PM »
China will be the death of us all.
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Re: "She Blinded Me With Science!"
« Reply #58 on: March 27, 2014, 11:31:55 AM »
The future is now...

http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22129623.000-gunshot-victims-to-be-suspended-between-life-and-death.html

Quote
Gunshot victims to be suspended between life and death

Doctors will try to save the lives of 10 patients with knife or gunshot wounds by placing them in suspended animation, buying time to fix their injuries

NEITHER dead or alive, knife-wound or gunshot victims will be cooled down and placed in suspended animation later this month, as a groundbreaking emergency technique is tested out for the first time.

Surgeons are now on call at the UPMC Presbyterian Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to perform the operation, which will buy doctors time to fix injuries that would otherwise be lethal.

"We are suspending life, but we don't like to call it suspended animation because it sounds like science fiction," says Samuel Tisherman, a surgeon at the hospital, who is leading the trial. "So we call it emergency preservation and resuscitation."

The technique involves replacing all of a patient's blood with a cold saline solution, which rapidly cools the body and stops almost all cellular activity. "If a patient comes to us two hours after dying you can't bring them back to life. But if they're dying and you suspend them, you have a chance to bring them back after their structural problems have been fixed," says surgeon Peter Rhee at the University of Arizona in Tucson, who helped develop the technique.

The benefits of cooling, or induced hypothermia, have been known for decades. At normal body temperature – around 37 °C – cells need a regular oxygen supply to produce energy. When the heart stops beating, blood no longer carries oxygen to cells. Without oxygen the brain can only survive for about 5 minutes before the damage is irreversible.

However, at lower temperatures, cells need less oxygen because all chemical reactions slow down. This explains why people who fall into icy lakes can sometimes be revived more than half an hour after they have stopped breathing.

Just before heart and brain surgery, doctors sometimes lower body temperature using ice packs, and by circulating the blood through an external cooling system. This can give them up to 45 minutes in which to stop blood flow and perform surgery. However, the cooling process takes time and can only be done with careful planning and preparation.

When someone reaches an emergency department with a traumatic gunshot injury or stab wound, slow cooling isn't an option. Often their heart has stopped beating due to extreme blood loss, giving doctors only minutes to stop the bleeding and restart the heart. Even if the bleeding can be stopped, it's not like filling up an empty gas tank. Resuscitation exposes the body to a sudden onslaught of oxygen, which can cause tissues to release chemicals that damage cells and cause fatal "reperfusion" injuries.

Finding ways to cool the body until it reaches a state of suspended animation – where people are not alive but not yet dead – could give doctors more time in an emergency.

The technique was first demonstrated in pigs in 2002 by Hasan Alam at the University of Michigan Hospital in Ann Arbor, and his colleagues. The animals were sedated and a massive haemorrhage induced, to mimic the effect of multiple gunshot wounds. Their blood was drained and replaced by either a cold potassium or saline solution, rapidly cooling the body to around 10 °C. After the injuries were treated, the animals were gradually warmed up as the solution was replaced with blood.

Vital signs

The pig's heart usually started beating again by itself, although some pigs needed a jump-start. There was no effect on physical or cognitive function (Surgery, doi.org/dvhdzs).

"After we did those experiments, the definition of 'dead' changed," says Rhee. "Every day at work I declare people dead. They have no signs of life, no heartbeat, no brain activity. I sign a piece of paper knowing in my heart that they are not actually dead. I could, right then and there, suspend them. But I have to put them in a body bag. It's frustrating to know there's a solution."

That solution will be put to the test in humans for the first time. A final meeting this week will ensure that a team of doctors is fully prepared to try it. Then all they have to do is wait for the right patient to arrive.

That person will have suffered a cardiac arrest after a traumatic injury, and will not have responded to attempts to start their heart. When this happens, every member of Tisherman's team will be paged. "The patient will probably have already lost about 50 per cent of their blood and their chest will be open," he says. The team sees one of these cases each month. Their chance of survival is less than 7 per cent.

The first step is to flush cold saline through the heart and up to the brain – the areas most vulnerable to low oxygen. To do this, the lower region of their heart must be clamped and a catheter placed into the aorta – the largest artery in the body – to carry the saline. The clamp is later removed so the saline can be artificially pumped around the whole body. It takes about 15 minutes for the patient's temperature to drop to 10 °C. At this point they will have no blood in their body, no breathing, and no brain activity. They will be clinically dead.

In this state, almost no metabolic reactions happen in the body, so cells can survive without oxygen. Instead, they may be producing energy through what's called anaerobic glycolysis. At normal body temperatures this can sustain cells for about 2 minutes. At low temperatures, however, glycolysis rates are so low that cells can survive for hours. The patient will be disconnected from all machinery and taken to an operating room where surgeons have up to 2 hours to fix the injury. The saline is then replaced with blood. If the heart does not restart by itself, as it did in the pig trial, the patient is resuscitated. The new blood will heat the body slowly, which should help prevent any reperfusion injuries.

The technique will be tested on 10 people, and the outcome compared with another 10 who met the criteria but who weren't treated this way because the team wasn't on hand. The technique will be refined then tested on another 10, says Tisherman, until there are enough results to analyse.

"We've always assumed that you can't bring back the dead. But it's a matter of when you pickle the cells," says Rhee.

Getting this technique into hospitals hasn't been easy. Because the trial will happen during a medical emergency, neither the patient nor their family can give consent. The trial can only go ahead because the US Food and Drug Administration considers it to be exempt from informed consent. That's because it will involve people whose injuries are likely to be fatal and there is no alternative treatment. The team had to have discussions with groups in the community and place adverts in newspapers describing the trial. People can opt out online. So far, nobody has.

Tisherman says he eventually hopes to extend the technique to other conditions.

For now, suspended animation is limited to a few hours. But that's not to say that more lengthy suspension isn't possible (see "Will human hibernation ever happen").

"We're trying to save lives, not pack people off to Mars," says Tisherman. "Can we go longer than a few hours with no blood flow? I don't know. Maybe years from now someone will have figured out how to do it, but it will certainly take time."

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Re: "She Blinded Me With Science!"
« Reply #59 on: March 27, 2014, 11:33:12 AM »